15

Hardwood is usually from a deciduous tree and softwood is usually from a coniferous one. Hardwoods typically have a higher density (hence hardwood). Seriously? For the most part that is the general accepted (although broad) definition and yes there are several exceptions. Little more than that please Much like identifying wood species; determining if a ...


10

This was then glued onto a plywood top. This isn't what you asked about but you might want to stop right there. You will likely run into problems if you glued solid wood firmly to a dimensionally stable material like plywood. Some allowance for seasonal movement must be made or the wood will strain against the glue and can crack itself free or will bow or ...


9

The fact that there is any warning at all probably has to do with the fact that the mask's rating is only FFP2 and it can only filter 94% of dust particles, whereas other masks can filter 99% or more. FFP2 also only requires <8% inward leakage, which seems like quite a significant amount of leakage. The reason the warning specifically mentions hardwoods ...


8

@bowlturner gives some excellent suggestions. Let me just add a few things: Be sure to use cauls. They are pieces of wood laid across the top of the boards being joined to keep them aligned (and to spread clamping pressure). Make sure to alternate the position of the clamps. Have some clamping from the top and others clamping from the bottom. If you don't, ...


7

Masks rated for less than P100 are not recommended for hardwoods since hardwoods produce smaller, finer dust particles than softwoods. As each tooth cuts the wood, the depth of cut for a hardwood is necessarily smaller (otherwise you overload your motor) and the smaller depth of cut produces fine dust that can pass filters designed only for larger particles....


7

The broader question here is what steps should one take to preclude spalting when drying wood? Spalting, as you probably know, is the result of fungal attack on the wood. Wikipedia lists several conditions that need to be met for spalting to occur: Thus, if you want to preclude spalting, do the opposite of the things listed above. Since you are ...


7

Technically hardwood comes from angiosperm trees, softwood comes from gymnosperm trees. So (mostly) if the tree has leaves it is hardwood, if it has needles it is softwood. This means that some 'hardwood' species can be a lot softer than 'softwood' species. Examples of hardwood: beach, oak, birch, balsa (which is very soft) Examples of softwood: spruce, ...


6

Yes you absolutely want to treat the ends of fence boards, even if they don't face upwards but especially if they do. Typically you wouldn't use anything different on them, just coat with the same product you use to protect the faces of the boards. However, an additional coat (or two) is advisable since the end grain is very much more absorbent than the ...


6

It depends. On blotch prone woods such as pine, poplar, cherry, and maple, yes. On oak and walnut, it depends. A pre-stain conditioner can limit absorption and therefore the shade of the stain - it may not be as dark. Pre-stain conditioning will even out the color tone across the piece, and this may or may not be desirable, i.e. for a more rustic look don't ...


6

Well I would tend to use my biscuit joiner to join all the pieces. Try to avoid flat sawn pieces in the middle of the table top and if you have flat sawn lumber then make sure you alternate the orientation, you want one up and then one down etc it will reduce the overall cupping motion across the whole top. An alternate that could be done is to run the ...


6

The handle in your photo is laminated, each colored strip was individually dyed before the lamination process. It's been 40 years since I dyed wood but the process worked well. I made my own purfling and binding for my guitars. I believe the dyes I used analine dyes in powder form that dissolves in water. The other thing I did was to soak overnight in very ...


5

How seamless does this need to be? Cuts along the wood's grain can often be glued back together almost undetectably, if you're careful. Bent lamination could be done, but the connection to face and back would not be seamless -- grain wouldn't match. There would also be a grain mismatch seam where the laminate ends meet, unless you are careful and/or lucky, ...


5

Exterior doors for homes are made out of MDF with a lot less than a one inch hard wood veneer. It is reasonable to expect your table design would hold up to normal work bench usage. A better choice might be to rescue some used hardwood flooring. Not the engineered type that is sold new today, but the kind from the 1950's and earlier that really was solid ...


5

If the lumberyard selected and delivered it, I would feel comfortable returning for exchange any pieces that I could not use due to either straightness or cosmetic defects. Some yard workers will use their discretion to dump otherwise un-sellable boards on a delivery knowing that an average contractor over-buys and will sort through the pieces to find boards ...


5

Moisture is the largest contributor to wood spalting, especially maple. However, what you are doing will greatly reduce the risk. The only wood I have used so far that has spalted when kept in a dry place is my yellow birch. The bark is too good at preventing moisture from leaving the wood. Maple, especially the small stuff you have (under 6"), ...


4

Red Oak is an open pored wood vs. White Oak which is a closed pore wood. Using a pre-stain on red oak can help close the pores to reduce the stain absorbed. Here's a video by Bruce Johnson recommending pre-stain and he's working with Oak cabinets. He says it's best for pine and problem woods like aspen and alder. So what I get from that is, it can ...


4

While it will probably have a greater effect on softwoods, it certainly won't hurt to use it on hardwood. As minwax's faq says, hardwoods have more even pores and thus take stains better. Bear in mind, this is for oil based stains. The pre-stain is oil based just like the stains, so if you use it, you'll probably get poor results with a poly finish even if ...


4

Per your edit, you appear to be looking for e.g. Janka hardness, a standardized measure involving indenting a wood sample with a penetrator and measuring the force required to indent a standard amount.


4

Planing end grain is not an easy task and getting a nice result should be taken as a good indicator of sharpness, especially in softwoods. It's impossible for most beginners and very difficult for a lot of learner woodworkers to get good results planing end grain at every attempt. And it seems paradoxical but the end grain of hardwoods is generally much ...


3

He thinks that the bed slats might warp if I don't use a sealer. A 'sealer' won't make much or any difference to this once the slats are fixed in place and in use. I use quotes above because the idea that we seal wood with a finish is widely misunderstood. Various finishes do protect the wood's surface from dirt to various degrees (even a thin application ...


3

Acetone is my go to for removing pencil marks - I'm not sure why you're having trouble with it. Perhaps the builder has left very heavy/deep marks? Water is fine to use on wood - I wouldn't leave it soaking in a bath over night, but it's fine to wipe down with water. The magic erase markers are also probably fine. They're mildly abrasive so you'll be ...


3

Depending on the size and how many gaps you have, you could try a Dutchman or Butterfly patch.


3

Wood dyes can be very expensive or very reasonable. Check out suppliers such Transfast wood dyes which come in a powdered form and can be tinted darker by adding more dye to the liquid base. You can use water but that will often raise the grain. I use rubbing alcohol from the big box which does not affect the grain. It goes on fairly evenly, dries fast and ...


3

I've read that wood conditioner (also known as pre-stain) helps prevent blotching, but it 'designed' for use with soft or porous wood. More accurately wood conditioners are designed for blotch-prone woods, which softwoods are known to be. But a few species of hardwoods are also prone to blotching too, including American cherry and birch. More on this at ...


3

I don't know if it's okay to use Mr. Clean Magic Eraser to remove all the pencil marks on the bed slats since it uses water. And I always hear water shouldn't be used on wood. It's perfectly OK to use water on wood, many processes require you to wet the wood surface down with plain water or a watery liquid. And anyway Magic Erasers don't need to be used ...


3

you should be fine. the drawer sides are thin enough that expansion/contraction of them is not an issue. furthermore, although you are pinning the dimension of the drawer from the inside, the outside is free to expand - but again, it's such a small amount. solid drawer bottoms are not glued in because the bottom panel is wide enough for expansion/contraction ...


3

I have used polyurethane a few times. Each time I've tried to be more careful about creating bubbles, but the finish was still riddled with bubbles. You're putting it on too thick (pun intended), and as well as that you're overworking the surface. Overworking with a brush is the classic way that bubbles are introduced into the varnish film on the surface, ...


3

It's hard to tell from just photos - the lighting and white balance can throw things off. This looks to me like you haven't fully removed the lacquer from most of the guitar, and those whitish spots are where you have finally gotten down to bare wood. Ash, like many woods when sanded, appears whiter than it actually is.


3

There are two ways: chemical, and physical. chemical: use paint stripper. if there is still finish left on the body you'll want to test this in an inconspicuous spot to make sure that finish isn't affected undesirably by the stripper. physical: get in there with blades and picks to pull out the paint. You'll ultimately probably need both - using small ...


3

There are several ways to do this. The radial arm saw would probably be my last choice, though. If you can find material 1 1/2 - 2 1/2" thick then you could just rip strips off of this with your table saw. This would probably be the easiest. Rip cuts (where you're laying the board flat on the table and reducing its width) are what table saws are designed ...


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