To start with please see previous Question, What is the difference between "curing" and "drying"?.
Dry to the touch — what you have now – is not cured, that takes weeks at least. The oft-repeated rule of thumb for a full cure in an oil-based finish is that it takes "about a month", although this is obviously a generalisation it gives a good idea of how patient you have to be.
To a degree, finishes take as long as they take to dry because drying times are dependant on local conditions (temp, humidity and airflow) and the moisture content of the wood itself. People who live in temperate climates with higher humidity have to wait much longer than those living somewhere dry and warm.
That said, 24 hours is not nearly long enough to safely put an oil-based finish into service probably anywhere, including somewhere like Arizona or the Australian outback. At this stage it would still scuff easily and be prone to taking imprint marks, even fingerprinting is possible early on.
Poly can be considered cured enough for light use (while still not being fully cured) when you can no longer smell any solvent odour with your nose pressed right against the surface. Expect this to take a few days to a week. Personally I wouldn't use something with varnish on it before this, but realities are what they are and if you must use a varnished surface before that time use coasters, placemats etc. to protect the unhardened finish.
I would advise not putting anything particularly heavy on the desktop until after a full cure. This includes only moderately heavy items with a small footprint, or rubber feet, which concentrate the weight to small areas. And don't wipe the surface with a damp cloth unless absolutely necessary.