The biggest or most common "buzzword" or term that I have heard in regards to this is Japanese Joinery. You might also hear Japanese Woodworking, Japanese Carpentry, or the word "traditional" tacked onto those as well (ie - "traditional japanese woodworking"). All of that might be a good place to start, but "japanese" seems to be the operative word.
There is a guy on youtube, the Samurai Carpenter ( https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC06fO6LNH_AUgjbmqaZRV5Q ), and his homepage ( http://samuraicarpenter.com/ ), where he talks about what you are referring to. He doesn't always go into details on his YouTube Channel, but does show off plenty of what he has built in that style. His homepage has plans, projects, and more to order that you might find helpful. At the very least, his channel might lead to more information and resources you would find useful for this endeavor.
There is also another guy, "Chop with Chris" who does some work like that. He is also very responsive to comments and emails and might have some additional resources.
I think some of that stuff looks really cool, so good luck and post back a comment of a link to pictures.
Also, the most recent issue of Family Handyman ( April 2018) had Alon the cover a viking table,
https://www.familyhandyman.com/woodworking/built-to-last-viking-long-table/view-all/. This is mostly what you are talking about with a few screws for appearances.
The additional terms used are mortise and tenon, which escaped me the other day.