The biggest or most common "buzzword" or term that I have heard in regards to this is Japanese Joinery. You might also hear Japanese Woodworking, Japanese Carpentry, or the word "traditional" tacked onto those as well (ie - "traditional japanese woodworking"). All of that might be a good place to start, but "japanese" seems to be the operative word.
The Samurai Carpenter's YouTube channel and homepage talks about what you are referring to. He doesn't always go into details on his YouTube Channel, but does show off plenty of what he has built in that style. His homepage has plans, projects, and more to order that you might find helpful. At the very least, his channel might lead to more information and resources you would find useful for this endeavor.
There is also another guy on YouTube, Chop with Chris, who does some work like that. He is also very responsive to comments and emails and might have some additional resources.
I think some of that stuff looks really cool, so good luck and post back a comment of a link to pictures.
Also, the April 2018 issue of Family Handyman had a viking table as its cover story. This is mostly what you are talking about with a few screws for appearances.
The additional terms used are mortise and tenon, which escaped me the other day.