You don't need to use different paper or replace the bottom pad with a smooth one for adhesives. You just need a replacement pad. A search for "Black & Decker 5" replacement pad" will show you what you need. You can buy them at hardware stores that carry Black & Decker or online.
If you look at the bottom of your sander you will see the 8 dust holes but you will also see a few holes that to down to screws. You can unscrew them and remove the bottom pad and screw the new one on.
You can avoid damaging your new one in many ways, many said already, including minimizing heat and pressure. But the most important thing to do is align the dust holes on the pad with the holes on the paper. The downside of this is you need to get sandpaper that has holes that align, probably brand specific. But anytime you leave a hole on the paper over the pad's hooks, you will be sanding down those hooks as if there was no paper on.