Let me shortly explain my background on this topic. I completely sympathize with your desire to keep the natural wood look and color in wood projects. In my experience most woodworkers love the finished look. Whenever I hear a woodworker say: "And now for the most satisfying part: the finish", I personally feel I'll often see a beautiful modern looking piece of furniture be transformed into a dark brown 70's cabinet or table. In other words, it's a style choice and I've been on the same quest as you have been.
There is one relatively new option that will do what you're looking for but has a big side note. Nano coating is a new technology that will basically let you coat almost any surface (including wood) with an invisible layer that completely blocks liquids and dirt. When I say invisible I mean 100% invisible so it adds zero gloss and has zero effect on the color of the wood. If you do a YouTube search on "Nano coating wood" you will see some examples.
The big side note is that there is still very little known about potential health implications. Some researchers have compared the molecular structure of nano technologies to that of asbestos. In some countries it has been cleared for safe use (in Germany it is used to make luxury car windows water repellent and it is used in fabrics) but in most countries research is still being done and a conclusive result on long term health effects is just not available. I have a bottle at home but it's still closed. I just don't dare to use it (yet).
Any other finish will always have an effect on the color and shine of the wood. Some more than others like other answers suggest. Even brands among the same finish might have different impacts due to different compositions. The only way to find out what comes closest to what you're looking for is to try a lot of them on pieces of scrap wood.
As for the restaurant tables in your photos, it could be that a varnish is used that actually contains some white coloring. That could compensate for the wood getting darker from the finish and give it that more unfinished color.
Another option could be that a varnish has been used that after hardening has been sanded down a bit again to give it that raw, dusty look and feel but still maintaining the protective properties.