MDF is pretty cool stuff. Been around for a fair amount of time now. Stuff is used lots now and days. Dimensionally stable and cost effective for a great deal of projects. Problem is that MDF is made with formaldehyde right? and that the chemical has been classified as a known carcinogen.

Looking up an article on MDF safety I ran into The deadly secret of DIY's dream material which contains such information like:\

At this month's TUC conference Roy Lockett, deputy general secretary of Bectu, said: 'MDF is the asbestos of the Nineties. It is carcinogenic. It causes lesions. It damages the eyes, the skin, the lungs and the heart. It is vile and pernicious.'

Then I watch this video where buddy is making a couple of hundred mdf boxes. There was a (exaggeration alert) tonne of MDF boxes made. You see him cutting all these boxes and I have to wonder what that is going to be doing to his health.

Lots o' boxes

Is working MDF bad for your health? Why is it so widely used if there are health concerns? Should I avoid its use?

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    This one has been bugging me for a while so I wanted to do a write up on it. Hopefully I am not providing any misleading information. Awareness is the whole point of this Q&A.
    – Matt
    Commented Mar 2, 2016 at 14:22
  • ALWAYS use protective gears when you work with MDF. Commented Mar 3, 2016 at 10:14
  • My son and I have inhaled mdf dust and the chemicals only once all we did was cough a little exposure is ok so went to see the doctor and our lungs are clear we all inhale chemicals everyday like cigarette smoke,car fumes, weed killers etc as long u don't do it everyday or it will be a problem Commented Oct 3, 2019 at 5:54

2 Answers 2


Is working MDF bad for your health?

Yes but only if you are ignorant of your tools and materials.

It certainly can be. However the answer of "Yes" is misleading as the concerns surrounding MDF are more than just the potential presence of hazards such as the release formaldehyde. Working MDF creates dust particles much like any other wood. It is true though that some formaldehyde will be located on those particles and that has the potential to enter the body.

Articles and blogs that discuss the harms of formaldehyde usually miss some key points. Namely that it is a naturally occurring organic compound that is found in the air, plants, animals and our own bodies.

Formaldehyde is normally present at low levels, usually less than 0.03 ppm,(parts per million) in both outdoor and indoor air.

From www.hse.gov.uk: What is formaldehyde and where does it come from?

Large point to make about MDF is that the common binding resin urea-formaldehyde, for which the concern derives from, is not the sole binding agent used in the manufacture of MDF today. Many suppliers offer formaldehyde free or no added-formaldehyde options.

Another thing that some people forget is that the compound urea-formaldehyde has also been used in the creation of plywoods and other sheet goods. Therefore its use in the engineered wood market is not new.

Should I avoid its use?

There are certain safety precautions that need to be taken regardless of the work you are doing. I like this quote from a prop makers blog that captures this well:

Like any other substance or material used in [the workshop], the safety of using it is dependent on knowing the risks and possible hazards and taking the appropriate precautions.

In that video that was linked I don't think I see a mask at all in use. Sawdust is a known carcinogen from MDF or otherwise. As discussed in What kind of wood dust is toxic/dangerous and requires usage of dust mask? the answer is you should always be wearing the appropriate dust mask.

Also need to be aware that reaction to different materials can be individual. Some people are just naturally sensitive to dust and particles. That does not mean MDF is a bad material on that justification alone.

Is working with MDF going to kill me?

Probably not. As long as you are aware of the risk associated with working on it. That last sentence should ring a general warning that you should always be aware of the risk to your personal safety when working with your tools and materials.

  • Not a fan of the title but nicely done Q&A Matt. Your answer raises a few of the key points that are usually left out in the scare posts, #1 of which is that urea-formaldehyde has been widely used for a very long time in materials common to the American home (sheet wood products are used less commonly in home building in other parts of the world), sometimes this is purely due to ignorance/a lack of due diligence but other times I think it's deliberately not mentioned as it would dilute the "MDF Is The Devil" message.
    – Graphus
    Commented Mar 2, 2016 at 15:15
  • @Graphus Yeah the title isn't really sitting with me so I am open to suggestions. Thanks for the nod though. Means a lot coming from you.
    – Matt
    Commented Mar 2, 2016 at 15:24
  • The title is no more sensationalist than those on other "media" outlets. You present good information in a logical way that helps dispel some of the mythinformation in other scare posts, so if a catchy title helps get it some attention, I'd say leave it. (The catchy title got it on the Hot Questions list, so... yay!)
    – FreeMan
    Commented Mar 2, 2016 at 19:55
  • I think I need to add a little more to this. Peoples individual sensitivity plays a part to. If I sneeze around pine it just mean I am sensitive to it. Does not mean I need to start a website about the dangers of pine
    – Matt
    Commented Mar 2, 2016 at 20:05
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    In Australia, there are two major supermarket chains, each controlling hardware stores. Either will cut wood for you, and both use industrial fan-forced saws to do so. About a year ago, the smaller HW chain imposed a ban on cutting MDF because of this scare. They will however, sell you MDF sheet (without a warning) for you to cut using your own tools in your enclosed workshop. This is one of dozens of "safety" scares taken seriously by the desk-jockeys that also refuse to stock what the customer wants. Believe it or not, that hardware chain has announced it will be going out of business.
    – Magoo
    Commented Mar 2, 2016 at 20:51

If you're CNC milling a particle board the dust would be flying everywhere, virtually everything that comes off the board is going to be aeroborne particles!

Maybe particle board in general, no matter what its made of, is a bad thing, related to asbestos.

It comes with a lot of engineering and chemical material science convenience, it makes it into the industry because its so easy to make, even though it has inherent problems especially with it being very water conductive.

Particle board is basicaly a sponge waiting for the moisture to build up.

If you're wearing a dust mask, it probably works quite well because its air-born solids, and that's what they are designed for.

  • "Maybe particle board in general, no matter what its made of, is a bad thing, related to asbestos." Order of magnitude difference!
    – Graphus
    Commented Jul 24, 2021 at 18:13
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    There are a lot of "probably" and "maybe" speculation in this post. If you have something factual that you can refer to in order to support your answer, please link & quote it. Otherwise, this is simply more internet speculation and FUD. The point of the question was to try to clear up the confusion with facts, not spread the confusion farther.
    – FreeMan
    Commented Jul 26, 2021 at 12:25

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