The two pictures below tend to be referenced as belt sanders. When I search the web for "bench-top belt sander", images of bth types appear. The two tools look different enough to have distinguishing names. Friends and I have colloquially taken to calling the one "ribbon belt sander" because we don't know its additional name.
They're all called "belt sanders", but typically have some descriptive adjectives in front of them. "Hand Held" and "Stationary" are generally used to distinguish portable hand-held tools with tools that stay in one place on a workbench:
Hand Held Belt Sanders - These are belt sanders you can hold in your hand:
Stationary Belt Sanders - These are belt sanders that remain stationary, like on a bench top (if you also said "benchtop belt sander" you'd be able to get the point across, too -- these typically seem to be combo belt + disc sanders these days, although that is not a rule):
Then you can describe stationary belt sanders in various ways, e.g. vertical stationary belt sanders:
The angled one you show isn't special, the angle is just... part of the specification of that tool, sort of like a 3" vs 6" belt sander. You can find ones with adjustable angles, too.
The one interesting iteration is stationary belt sanders with a vertical sanding plane but with the belt moving horizontally are often called edge sanders, e.g.:
And there you might have oscillating edge sanders, as well, which are edge sanders that, as implied, oscillate back and forth.
But basically, edge sanders aside, they don't really have special names. They're all belt sanders. "Hand Held" vs "Stationary" is the most important categorization, but beyond that, you essentially just tack a reasonable descriptive adjective on the front.
I will not attempt to guess the difference between hand held and stationary Bernie Sanders, though.