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I'm new to honing/sharpening and am a little confused about which angles I should be trying to hone my chisels/plane blades to (given the type and their usage). Any general rules of thumb that I can start with and progress towards?

1

As long as a bevel-down plane iron's sharpening angle is more acute than the bedding angle, that face of the iron doesn't see any action, so it doesn't really matter. It's normal to sharpen a plane iron to around 25°.
Chisels will vary depending on their purpose: for mortising, you want a stouter, wider angle; for paring, a finer, narrower angle. Start with 12° and see what you like.

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