I am learning woodworking because I have an interest in making wooden picture frames.
I would like to learn what tools and techniques could be used to create some of the highlighted elements below.
A: Smooth profiles like A can be created using a router table. I know how these are made.
B: I would like to know how elements like what is highlighted in B could be made. I'm sure this could be hand carved but I don't think this was hand-carved.
C: I would also like to know how the half-ball pattern highlighted in C was made. I doubt this could be done with a router table.
Please focus any answers to a hobbyist's resources and budget if possible.