I would like to make a series of boat's hulls from a single block of wood. My first consideration is how to semi-accurately model the complex geometry of the stern and bow of a ship. The models only have to be optically accurate and will not be used for wave modeling or scientific analysis, but nevertheless the geometries are pretty complex. Has anyone had similar projects who can help?
One method for reproducing complex curves is to mill the surfaces of the block flat and parallel, and then use a drill press to drill a series of holes to measured depths. You can then start removing stock by any means: band saw, hand planes, sanding, etc. until you've just barely removed the evidence of the holes.
Another possibility is to create a series of templates for use with a plunge router -- one template for each depth. This would leave you with a hull with a series of steps, and you'd again have to remove the remaining stock. This is a sort of manual version of CNC routing (which is yet another possibility).
If you're going to make several identical copies of the same hull, the fastest way (not counting jig construction) is to build a copying jig/pantograph for your router. You could then create the first model by any means (such as 3D printing, plaster casting, etc.) and make as many copies in wood as you need.
All the answers so far assume you're looking for a power tool method (and you probably are), however, since you indicate that you're working in softwood, you may want to consider a couple of carving knives and a few evenings on the front porch. Your first couple might have a few rough spots, but I'm told you can get the hang of it reasonably quickly, especially for the type of quality you're indicating.
Personally, I think your best bet is to get CAD files and use a CNC machine. First this would make it a lot easier to replicate the work and it can be done in relatively short order.
If you can't/don't want to buy one (understandable, I don't have one nor likely to either) there are different places that you can rent/pay to use them. I think some Maker Spaces have them, there are other communities as well. And some shops will let you bring in your CAD files and put it on their machines.
And while this isn't wood working, you can also get/buy/use 3D printers to print the whole ship and some of them can have very fine detail indeed.
Is it possible to reconsider whether you must start with a solid block of wood? For much of boatbuilding history, half-hull models were used which were made out of horizontal slices or sections (called 'waterlines'). Each section could then be cut to the appropriate shape, and then 'faired' to a smooth hull surface.