Is there a way to glue the underside surface of the table top to a metal (folded sheet metal) bar I would even consider that if I knew what type of glue that would be.
Yes. This would not be the ideal fix since the top should remain more easily removable but even if the fix needed to last longer than it does this is doable1.
An easy fix I just thought of now, would be to shoot wood glue into the hole and set the screw into the wet glue.
I will replace the whole table in about 2 weeks so a fix doesn't need to last forever.
Honestly, that would probably be enough if you use a glue that sets hard enough. You probably mean a PVA-type glue when you say "wood glue" here but do note that some PVAs set quite hard, while others are more rubbery/plasticy and wouldn't work as well.
It's worth noting that the glue won't actually bond to the screw much, or at all, but what it will do is create perfect engagement of the threads once hardened – in effect you're casting a screw thread in the hole. Just in case it's not obvious you want to do this with the table flipped over.
But for potential future reference, a more permanent repair of stripped-out holes in particle board/chipboard is quite possible. There are numerous good methods. The one that I would suggest is using a filled epoxy that you make yourself2 from cheap 5-min epoxy. Generally the recommended filler for homemade wood putty is sawdust (note: misleading3) but since non-woodworkers usually don't have that available wheat flour can be used in a pinch.
1 Despite melamine laminate's reputation for not being gluable both epoxy and PVA-type wood glues can stick it together quite well, as long as it's absolutely clean. I haven't tried it but I presume that any kind of polyurethane adhesive would also. The bond can be further strengthened by texturing the surface, just simple sanding scratches help although you can go a little further to provide even more for the glue to grab on to.
2 There are now numerous epoxy putties meant for various types of repairs including for use with wood. The DIY type can actually be better for this type of thing for a number of reasons. It can also be quite a bit cheaper as well as having a far longer shelf life.
3 Literally the first return that comes up when I did a test search just now says "Wood glue and sawdust..." although I highly doubt they mean actual dust from a saw. 'Sawdust' often refers generically to wood dust of any kind, but often in practice means sanding dust specifically.