I’ve also sanded but I’ve reached a point where I can’t tell if all the finish removed or maybe I’ve just gone too far with the stripping and ruined the wood.
Wood without finish should look uniformly similar - not blotchy. Some wood does have uneven patterns. For the wood in question, if you not sure, look for some unfinished wood inside or under the furniture). In this case, the wood is rather uniform. It should feel uniformly similar after sanding (smooth) as well. The entire surface should look even and similar when wet with water or alcohol, without blotches. Often a strong raking light will reveal if there is still residue of finish left.
While there is little detail in the resolution of the photo, it looks like you still have more finish to remove. Assuming the top of this piece is solid wood (and not veneer), feel free to apply more stripper and sand again. You won't ruin the wood (unless you really try hard!) Be mindful of the sides of the top and the underneath of the top since it overhangs the rest of the piece of furniture. This is a common location missed when stripping furniture.
Note: it is possible to not remove all the stripper, which itself can leave a blotchy residue, so follow the instructions carefully.
Another note: if the furniture was stained originally and then finished, then stripped and sanded - it is possible that the blotchiness is due to some of the stain being sanded away in some areas and not others.