It looks like there are two problems, and could be addressed individually.
The hole that's too large is an easy fix using a dowel. Buy a dowel and use a drill bit of matching size (see note below) to drill out the hole to match--then glue the dowel in to fill the hole. After the glue is dry cut the dowel off flush, drill a fresh pilot hole, and you're all set.
Or, if the hole is just a little too large, you can dip a toothpick (or a couple/few) in wood glue, put them in the hole and cut them flush, then install the screw. The toothpicks and glue will reduce the size of the hole and add some fresh wood for the threads to grip into.
The plywood repair has a few options. The simplest would be to use something like a wood filler epoxy, like Abatron WoodEpox. That's a product I use quite a bit and is nice because it's something like a play-doh consistency so it's easy to push into gaps without it oozing out, and after curing it sands well. The downside is that it won't look like plywood--when you look at it edge-on you'll see the repair as a homogenous patch. You could consider covering both the patch and the rest of the edge with a banding veneer, or painting it solid to hide the repair.
Another option for the plywood repair might be a little harder to source, but visually match better. It would involve replacing the missing portion of each broken ply--if you measure the thickness of an individual ply and can source a sheet of stock of the same thickness you can create a custom plywood plug (or, if you have a table saw, rip some very thin piece to match the thickness). It doesn't have to perfectly fill the cavity, just cover the hole. But give this looks like fairly thin ply and a small hole sourcing this might be a challenge and going the putty route might be fine.
Note: dowels are often smaller than listed -- e.g. a 1/2" dowel might be more like 7/16" diameter. Use a piece of scrap wood to figure out what drill bit matches the dowel.