You make indoor spaces ant and termite resistant by having an exterminator come into your house and, using the appropriate chemicals in the recommended manner on a recommended schedule, spray wood trim and installed furniture, and places where such pests have ingress to indoor spaces. The idea is to lay down a coating of chemicals where the pests walk or come into the house. In some places or under some circumstances this has to be done on a schedule, because such chemicals do not stay effective forever.
I've never heard of needing to spray movable furniture, but I'm sure a local exterminator would be able to assist you with that decision.
In short, there is no indoor-safe treatment that you apply under a finish that makes wood furniture pest-free, but mostly because one rarely needs to do this.
Wood is a natural product, and it will eventually rot or succumb to pest attacks under the right circumstances. If you protect it from too much damp or too much dry it will last a surprisingly long time. And insects generally do not attack preserved or finished wood. Insects are usually the next step in material that has already started to degrade because of exposure to the elements.
To further take the Q&A off-topic, the real prevention you should be concentrating on is finding places where pests like termites might find entrance into your house! If they can't get from the ground to foundational structures (e.g., old boards leaning up against the house) you are probably ok. If you have a stone or concrete foundation then this is the best way to "future proof" against such pests.